What is C Language and its Features ?

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What is the C language?

C Language, a general-purpose, procedural, middle-level language (since it supports both low-level and high-level functions), was first implemented on the DEC PDP-11 PC in 1972. Dennis M. Ritchie originally designed it to support the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs.

C programming was initially used to create the programs that make up the operating system. Assembler, which is now used as a system development language, is almost twice as quick as C when producing code.

Operating Systems (including the UNIX operating system and all UNIX applications), Language Compilers (including the C compiler), Assemblers, Text Editors, Print Spoolers, Network Drivers, Modern Programs, Databases, Language Interpreters, and Utilities are some examples of applications that use the C language. If you want to do C language training in Surat, then the Simba Institute will help you get skills in the C language.

Features of C Language

The most common language is C. It offers a number of the features listed below.

1) Simple

In that it offers a structured approach (to divide the problem into sections), a wide variety of library functions, data types, etc., C is a straightforward language.

2) Machine Independent or Portable

C to assembly language, C programs may run on various processors with some machine-specific modifications. C is a machine-independent language as a result.

3) Mid-level programming language

Nevertheless, C is designed for low-level programming. It is used to create system applications like kernels and drivers, among others. Additionally, it provides a high-level language’s characteristics. It is called a mid-level language for this reason.

4) Structured programming language

Because we can divide a program using functions, C is a structured programming language. Therefore, it is simple to comprehend and alter. Additionally, functions enable code reuse.

5) Rich Library

A lot of built-in functions in C make development quick.

6) Memory Management

The capability of dynamic memory allocation is supported. By using the free() method, we can release the memory that has been allocated at any time in C.

7) Speed

Since there are fewer built-in functions and fewer overheads, the C language compiles and executes quickly.

8) Pointer

Pointers are a feature offered by C. By utilising the pointers, we may communicate directly with the memory. For memory, structures, functions, arrays, etc., we can use pointers.

9) Recursion

The function within the function can be called in C. It offers code reuse for each function. We are able to employ the backtracking strategy thanks to recursion.

10) Extensible

The C programming language is extensible because it is simple to add new features.

What are the advantages of the C language?

C is a very well-liked language that is excellent for a programmer to master early in their career. The language has a limited vocabulary, straightforward grammar, and an easier-to-learn modular structure.

1. It is easy to understand

The simplicity of C is one of the primary factors in favour of it over other programming languages. C is a very portable programming language since its programs are much faster and more effective. C is therefore the easiest programming language to learn. The fundamentals behind C are simple to understand because there aren’t many keywords or symbols used. Furthermore, you don’t have to be an expert in computer science to begin programming with C. Simply study through several internet tutorials before starting to write your own codes. In the C language, there are additionally user-defined functions and system-generated functions.

2. Presence of many Libraries

There are many built-in functions available in the C language, including both system-generated and user-defined functions. A program can be created using a variety of general functions as well as user-generated/defined functions, which are created by the programmer and recognized by the C compiler.

3. Easy to write

Another reason C is so well-liked among programmers as an effective language is that it enables them to write their own software without having to be concerned about syntax problems. Using the structured language C will help you improve your coding skills if you are new to the field. Using C, you’ll find that your solutions are more effective and efficient than those produced by other programming languages.

4. Low cost

It is definitely worthwhile to take this into consideration if you want to construct something from scratch. You won’t waste a lot of time attempting to determine whether or not you made a mistake when designing your application because of its straightforward layout. And they would only charge you less money if you chose to pay someone else to finish the job.

5. Fast execution speed

C is most likely the best option if you want your application to run rapidly. C executes more quickly than other programming languages like Java, Ruby, PHP, etc. because it requires fewer instructions.

6. Portable

Since C is built using ASCII characters, it runs well on a variety of operating systems, including Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Android, and iOS. Therefore, regardless of where you live, you can run C applications.

7. Easy debugging

You can simply debug your code with C because it doesn’t require complex statements like loops, conditionals, variables, functions, arrays, pointers, etc. For instance, you may simply click CTRL+D to halt the process right away if you run into issues when running your program. When you get to the troublesome statement, you can just go back one line and continue writing.

8. Procedure Oriented Language

In the C programming language, users write procedures or functions to carry out their responsibilities. A procedure-oriented language is incredibly simple to learn due to the way it functions (using an algorithm to execute the statements you write). You must frame an algorithm and begin turning it into a function if you wish to create a program using a procedure-oriented language.

9. Speed of Compilation

The C compiler generates machine code incredibly quickly. A few seconds can be used to construct nearly a thousand lines of code. The C compiler improves the efficiency of the code for quicker execution.

10. Execution of algorithms and data structures

The use of algorithms and data structures in C has resulted in incredibly rapid and fluid program calculations. The C language can then be used for challenging calculations and projects like MATLAB.

11. Dynamic memory allocation

You can either allocate memory statically or dynamically in C. In dynamic allocation, the amount of space needed at runtime for our data structure is unknown. However, if static allocation is employed, a set amount of RAM must be set aside before the application may begin to run. So, compared to other languages like Java, where we are required to declare all variables as final, this feature gives us more flexibility.

You can distribute memory at runtime while using dynamic memory allocation. For instance, if you have no idea how much memory the objects in your program will require, you can proceed to run a C program while allocating the RAM at the same time.

What are the disadvantages of the C language?

1. Lack of Object Orientation

C is an extremely powerful and extensive language that merely adheres to the procedural programming paradigm. It does not offer any support for the idea of OOPs (inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, abstraction, and data hiding). In this case, unlike in Java, Python, or C++, you cannot build a class with multiple inheritances. In OOP languages like Java, we are able to inherit methods from the parent class. But the C language doesn’t offer something comparable. For our classes, subclasses are not possible. Therefore, it is challenging to reuse old codes.

2. Inefficient Memory Management

The C language handles all resources that have been allocated for you automatically, so you don’t need to apply any memory management strategies. But if you wish to employ dynamic allocation, you should use the malloc function to do so. Manually performing this will result in a segmentation fault error. So, it is important to continually keep in mind memory management techniques.

3. No Garbage Collection

A feature called garbage collection enables applications and libraries to automatically free up memory from things that are no longer required. Both automatic and manual garbage collection can be done with it. Automatic trash collection happens when the heap has run out of room to allocate new items. This can happen when other processes using the computer system have taken up all of the physical RAM. Manual garbage collection entails calling operations like malloc to intentionally release unneeded memory blocks.

However, there is no such functionality as garbage collection in C/C++ because it is customary for developers and programmers to handle storage management in these languages. Therefore, creating a precise garbage collector for C/C++ would be difficult technically and expensive.

4. Run-time checking

The mistakes are not found after each line of code in the C programming language. Debugging large projects’ code can be extremely challenging because the compiler only displays all problems in the code during the course of the project as a whole.

Additionally, the compiler does not verify that variables were declared prior to use. When writing programs, the programmer must keep this principle in mind.

5. Concept of namespace is not present in C

Namespaces are not implemented in C. To enable name reuse in diverse circumstances, a namespace is structured as a series of commands. We are unable to pronounce two factors with the same name without namespaces.

To characterise a variable with the same name in C, however, is impossible because it lacks this functionality.

6. Absence of Exception Handling 

A unique case Perhaps the most important component of programming dialects is handling. There may be a variety of mistakes and bugs during code compilation. Using exception handling, you may find the flaws and fix them. However, C doesn’t demonstrate this crucial aspect.

7. Lacks Constructor and Destructor

Constructor and Destructor capabilities are absent from C since it lacks object-oriented functionalities. Therefore, in C, you must manually create and/or destroy the variable, either by using a function or by using alternative methods.

We now draw to a close our overview of the benefits and drawbacks of the C programming language, and we hope that you have a firm grasp of the many advantages and disadvantages of C at this point.

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